和Sunny一樣喜歡印象派畫作的人,大概看得出來,這篇的篇名是從莫內的名畫《印象●日出》來的。

有別於許多其他流派,印象派是從巴黎發展出來的風格。當時現在所稱的印象派大師們多在蒙馬特的畫室練習作畫,等待有朝一日可以晉身學院,在所謂的沙龍裡展出畫作。

在發展出印象派之前,當時以文藝復興風格為主,較具知名度的畫家不論提出的畫作如何,皆能在沙龍佔一席之地,但年輕畫家諸如莫內、雷諾瓦、畢沙羅等人,即使有出色畫作亦難有機會展出。這些年輕畫家逐漸厭倦這樣的狀況,也希望走出別具的風格,因而逐漸發展出現時所稱的印象派。而莫內的《印象●日出》正是印象派之所以名為印象派的原因。

Anyone who, like Sunny, is into the Impressionism might be able to tell that the title of this entry (Impression, Paris, Musée d'Orsay) is inspired by the famous Monet painting, "Impression, Sunrise".

Unlike many other artistic styles, Impressionism was born in Paris. Back then, the so-called Impressionists got apprenticeship in small studios in Montmartre in hope of making it to the Academie des Beaux-Arts and exhibiting their paintings at the Salon des Beaux-Arts.

Before the Impressionism, the dominating art style in Paris was the Renaissance. The more renowned artists would always have a space in the Salon exhibition regardless the quality of their pieces, while on the other hand, young artists, such as Monet, Renoir, Pissaro, struggled to enter the exhibition even with the most brilliant paintings presented. By the end, these talented artists got tired of the situation and also intended to develop their own style, and hence, the birth of Impressionism, which is named after the Monet's painting mentioned above, "Impression, Sunrise".

奧賽美術館自開館以來,即因為收藏有許多印象派作品,一直被視為重要的印象派殿堂。

Ever since its earliest days, Musée d'Orsay has been considered the cathedral of the Impressionism, thanks to its large collection of the Impressionism art pieces.

Musée d'Orsay 1.JPG 

(A peep of Musée d'Orsay from the other side of the Seine River)

Musée d'Orsay 3.JPG 

(The square outside of Musée d'Orsay)

位於賽納河左岸的奧賽美術館,原本是火車站,隨著需求改變,這個車站使用率降低,最後這個火車站被廢棄,而在1977年改建成美術館,但也成就了巴黎最受喜愛的美術館。在我們去巴黎玩之前,麻煩先生問了幾個過去曾派駐巴黎的朋友,每個人都強調,奧賽美術館是最值得一遊的地點。

建築!內裝!展品!概念!怎不讓人喜愛!

Musée d'Orsay, located at the left bank of the Seine River, was once a train station. With changes of demands, the station had served its time and seized all transportation functions. It was transformed into the current museum form in 1977, and turns out to be the most acclaimed museum in Paris. Prior to our trip, Mr. T consulted several friends who had previously been assigned to Paris, everyone said the same thing: Musée d'Orsay is the must-see.

The architecture! The interior! The art collection! The concept! All of which show just why it is so beloved.

Musée d'Orsay 27.JPG 

雖然經過改裝,但奧賽美術館裡保留了許多過去火車站時期的特色,從最頂端的樓層向下看,可以看出過去月台與軌道的脈絡,館內保留了舊時車站的大鐘,也足以引發懷舊的風情。

After the transformation, Musée d'Orsay still retains some distinct characteristics of a train station. Looking down from the top level, one can still see the outlines of platforms and train rails. The old big clocks are also kept for a taste of nostalgia.

奧賽美術館珍藏的諸多印象派畫作中,重要的作品諸如:

Among the huge number of Impressionism paintings owned by Musée d'Orsay, some important works are:

梵谷的《隆河上星夜》

《Starry Night Over the Rhone》 by Vincent van Gogh

Musée d'Orsay 14.JPG 

梵谷《自畫像》

《Self Portray》 of Vincent van Gogh

Musée d'Orsay 15.JPG 

雷諾瓦的《煎餅磨坊的舞會》

《Le Moulin de la Galette》of Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Musée d'Orsay 19.JPG 

雷諾瓦的《小孩與貓》

《Juliet Manet》(a.k.a 《Child with Cat》) of Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Musée d'Orsay 11.JPG 

臨摹名畫家的畫作,在西方藝術上是很重要的培養過程,在參觀奧賽美術館時,也碰巧看到一位老先生站在這幅畫前臨摹。

An important part of western artists education is to mimic paintings of masters. When we visited Musée d'Orsay, we happened to see an old gentleman standing in front of this painting trying to duplicate it.

莫內的《藍水仙》

《Blue Water Lilies》 of Claude Monet

Musée d'Orsay 16.JPG 

莫內一系列羅恩教堂畫作

A series of paintings of Rouen Cathedral by Claude Monet

Musée d'Orsay 18.JPG 

照片中那個男生手上拿的不是手機唷,而是導覽的機器。

The man in the photo was not talking over the phone; instead, he was listening to the audio.

馬內的《女人與扇子》

《Lady with Fans》 by Edouard Manet

Musée d'Orsay 21.JPG 

馬內和莫內姓氏很像,拼法只差一個字,又屬同時代的畫家,但其實馬內成名較早,在莫內還努力想擠進沙龍畫展未果時,馬內早在沙龍展出過畫作。1863年,為滿足眾多無法在官方沙龍展出畫作的畫家們,而開啟的Salone des Refusés上,馬內的畫作《草地上的午餐》(沒拍到照片,請點連結)因畫了一名裸女和一群衣冠楚楚的男士在草地上野餐,而嚇壞一干觀眾。這幅即具爭議的畫作也留存在奧賽美術館。

Manet and Monet have very similar last names and are contemporary to each other, but in fact, Manet got known much earlier than Monet who failed to show his paintings at the official Salone when Manet made it. In 1863, on the Salone des Refusés, an exhibition dedicated to paintings refused entry to the official Salone, Manet presented his controversial 《Déjeuner sur l'Herbe》 featuring a naked woman sitting on the grass with several well-dressed gentlemen for a picnic (didn't photograph this one, please click here to see the painting), which literally freaked people out and was vastly criticized. This painting is also owned by Musée d'Orsay.

其他如卡勒波特的《刨地板工人》

Other paintings, such as 《The Floor Planner》 by Gustave Cailebotte

Musée d'Orsay 23.JPG 

由於卡勒波特接受完整的學院教育,他的畫作仍帶有學院派較重寫實的風格。這幅畫也是開始揣摩都市工人生活的濫觴之一。

Cailebotte was fully trained in the Academie; thus, his paintings usually are somewhat more realistic than most of the Impressionism paintings. 《The Floor Planner》is also one of the earliest paintings portraying life of the urban workers.

洛特雷克的《紅磨坊舞會》

《Dancing at the Moulin Rouge》 by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Musée d'Orsay 13.JPG 

洛特雷克的畫風很有意思,受到日本浮世繪影響,因此他的畫作裡,不管是人物線條或構圖方式,都很有日本畫風的味道。他為了攢錢畫了不少海報,對十九世紀末衍發的新藝術運動(奧地利知名畫家Gustav Klimt即為新藝術運動潮流重要人物之一)影響極深。

Toulouse-Lautrec's paintings interest me a lot! Influenced by the Japanese Ukiyo-e, his paintings, including lines of human bodies or the composition, contain a trace or two of such Japanese style. He made many posters to earn money, and has profoundly affected the future Art Nouveau of late 19th century (the far famed Austrian painter, Gustave Klimt, was one of the important figures of Art Nouveau).

印象派畫作追求的是光與影的捕捉,因此與學院派不同,強調戶外寫生,色彩運用也不如古典派有一定的規則,而追求以眼見所憑的色澤為準。在印象派剛發展之際,遭受到非常多的非難與批評,但在後世,印象派卻因打破許多構圖與色彩運用的原則,而成為相當重要也深受許多人喜愛的派別。

The Impressionism focuses on capturing the lights and shadows. Unlike the Academie artists, the Impressionists emphasized on painting in the open air, and neglected the rules of color applications set forth in the Classics; rather, the Impressionist tried to apply colors as they saw them. At the very beginning of the Impressionism movement, it is very much criticized. However, nowadays, for its ground breaking composition and color utilization, the Impressionism has become one of the most important art movements and many people's favorite. 

畫作之外,羅丹的雕塑也一直被視為是印象派的作品。

羅丹的《地獄門》

Other than paintings, Rodin's sculptures are also deemed artwork of the Impressionism.

《The Gates of Hell》 by Auguste Rodin

Musée d'Orsay 28.JPG 

當然奧賽美術館的館藏不只這些,只是真要把我想說的都說完的話,恐怕得寫好幾篇...

The art collection of Musée d'Orsay is so abundant that it might take up several articles for me to introduce every piece that I would like to talk about....

美術館靠北側的一角,有一個留存下來的大鐘,除了非常有特色以外,透過玻璃窗面,也可以看到遠處蒙馬特丘陵上的聖心堂。

At the north side of the museum stands an old clock. Not only does it make the scene distinct, but one may see the far away Basilique du Sacré-Cœur on the Montmartre hill through the glass surface.

Musée d'Orsay 26.JPG 

 

p.s. 拍畫作或展品真的是超級難的一件事,被Sunny拍得色調有所偏差,比例有點怪異....傷腦筋哩。

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